Global Conventions and agreements
|Agreement||Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Adopted: 1992; In force: 1993|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||The CBD in article 8h. states that: "Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;"
COP decisions on or related to aliens:
|Content and coverage of regulation||The Convention on Biological Diversity is an agreement to take action on specific points relating to biodiversity including on aliens species. Each party has to report it’s actions and how effective this is in meeting the objectives of the Convention. More than 180 states are now parties to the CBD. The CBD addresses the introduction of alien species globally. The Convention also works through legally binding agreements such as the COP decisions mentioned above. The CBD covers both unintentional and intentional introductions.
Aliens species is a cross cutting issue under the CBD - all information on aliens under the CBD can be reached through the Alien Species Portal
|Agreement||Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention) Adopted: 1979 ; In force: 1983|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||The CMS states specifically in article III, 4c. that "Parties that are Range States of a migratory species listed in Appendix I shall endeavour:… to the extent feasible and appropriate, to prevent, reduce or control factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the species, including strictly controlling the introduction of, or controlling or eliminating, already introduced exotic species".
Article V, 5 states that agreements adding to Annex II should provide for but not be limited to: …. "Conservation and, where required and feasible, restoration of the habitats of importance in maintaining a favourable conservation status, and protection of such habitats from disturbances, including strict control of the introduction of, or control of already introduced, exotic species detrimental to the migratory species;"
|Content and coverage of regulation||The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention. Exotic species which endanger migratory species listed in Appendix II may be subjected to control.
The Bonn Convention works closely with the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (see below)
|Agreement||Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Washington Convention) Adopted: 1973; In force: 1975|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||In Article XIV a provision states that the Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt domestic measures restricting or prohibiting trade, taking, possession or transport of species not included in Appendix I, II or III. The provision has been used in Europe to adress specific alien species (see section on regional legal instruments.)|
|Content and coverage of regulation||CITES works by subjecting international trade of selected species to certain controls. The species covered by CITES are threatened species which are listed in three appendices according to the degree of protection they need in the exporting countries.|
|Agreement||International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’s Ballast water and Sediments Adopted: 2004|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||The entire convention deals with the effort to prevent harmful aquatic organisms to be transfered through ballastwater and sediments|
|Content and coverage of regulation||Parties must prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. The parties may take more stringent measures with respect to the prevention, reduction or elimination of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments, consistent with international law.|
|Agreement||United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Adopted: 1982; In force: 1994|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||Article 196 (1) of the Convention states that: "States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto."|
|Content and coverage of regulation||States oblige to protect and preserve the marine environment from a "significant and harmful change" from the pollution by the intentional or uintential introduction of aliens species.|
|Agreement||Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses Adopted: 1997|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||Article 22 affirms that: "Watercourse States shall take all measures necessary to prevent the introduction of species, alien or new, into an international watercourse which may have effects detrimental to the ecosystem of the watercourse resulting in significant harm to other watercourse States".|
|Content and coverage of regulation||The Convention has not entered into force, since few signatures and ratifications have taken place. The Convention is a framework convention laying down the obligations and duties of the States sharing a basin as well as guiding States in negotiating agreements on specific watercourses.|
|Agreement||The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention) Adopted: 1971; In force: 1975|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||Resolution VII/14 on Invasive species and wetlands|
|Content and coverage of regulation||
The Convention's mission is the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world. The Ramsar Convention has identified invasive species as one of the threats to wetlands.
|International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) Adopted: 1951; In force: 1952; Amended: 1987|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||
In 2013 IPPC and FAO hosted the Inter-Agency Liaison Group on Invasive Alien Species
In 2012 IPPC had a Seminar on International Trade and Invasive Alien Species
An IPPC workshop on invasive alien species was held in 2003.
|Content and coverage of regulation||The International Plant Protection Convention is an international treaty relating to plant health. While the Convention applies mainly to quarantine pests involved with international trade it extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products. It also includes both direct and indirect damage by pests, thus including weeds. The provisions extend to cover conveyances, containers, storage places, soil and other objects or material capable of harbouring plant pests.
Under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the European and Meditarenean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) is the regional plant protection organization (RPPO) for Europe. EPPO maintains an alert list of invasive species.
|Agreement||Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS agreement) Adopted: 1994; In force: 1995|
|Special section(s) relevant to alien species||No specific alien species content, but pests are often alien species as well.|
|Content and coverage of regulation||The SPS agreement supplements the WTO agreement and provides an international legal basis for all sanitary and phytosanitary measures which may, directly or indirectly, affect international trade. The focus is with pests, diseases, sanitary and phytosanitary issues.|