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International legal instruments

Global Conventions and agreements
Regional Directives and Conventions
Guidelines and Codes of conduct



Global Conventions and agreements

Agreement Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Adopted: 1992; In force: 1993
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The CBD in article 8h. states that: "Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;"

COP decisions on or related to aliens:

  • Decision IV/1 Report and recommendations of the third meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, and instructions by the Conference of the Parties to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
  • Decision V/8 Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species
  • Decision IV/5 annex, Programme area 5 Conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity, including a programme of work
  • Decision VI/23 on alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.
  • Decision VII/13 Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species (Article 8 (h))

    SBSTTA Recommendations on aliens:

  • Recommendation IV/4 Development of guiding principles for the prevention of impacts of alien species and identifying priority areas of work on isolated ecosystems and giving recommendations for further development of the Global Invasive Species Programme
  • Recommendation V/4 Alien species: guiding principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts
  • Recommendation VI/4 Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species
  • Recommendation IX/15 Invasive alien species
Content and coverage of regulation The Convention on Biological Diversity is an agreement to take action on specific points relating to biodiversity including on aliens species. Each party has to report it’s actions and how effective this is in meeting the objectives of the Convention. More than 180 states are now parties to the CBD. The CBD addresses the introduction of alien species globally. The Convention also works through legally binding agreements such as the COP decisions mentioned above. The CBD covers both unintentional and intentional introductions.

Aliens species is a cross cutting issue under the CBD - all information on aliens under the CBD can be reached through the Alien Species Portal


Agreement Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals  (CMS or Bonn Convention)  Adopted: 1979 ; In force: 1983
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The CMS states specifically in article III, 4c. that "Parties that are Range States of a migratory species listed in Appendix I shall endeavour:… to the extent feasible and appropriate, to prevent, reduce or control factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the species, including strictly controlling the introduction of, or controlling or eliminating, already introduced exotic species".

Article V, 5 states that agreements adding to Annex II should provide for but not be limited to: …. "Conservation and, where required and feasible, restoration of the habitats of importance in maintaining a favourable conservation status, and protection of such habitats from disturbances, including strict control of the introduction of, or control of already introduced, exotic species detrimental to the migratory species;"

Content and coverage of regulation The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention. Exotic species which endanger migratory species listed in Appendix II may be subjected to control.

The Bonn Convention works closely with the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (see below)


Agreement Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
 of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES or Washington Convention)
Adopted: 1973; In force: 1975
Special section(s) relevant to alien species In Article XIV a provision states that the Convention shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt domestic measures restricting or prohibiting trade, taking, possession or transport of species not included in Appendix I, II or III. The provision has been used in Europe to adress specific alien species (see section on regional legal instruments.)
Content and coverage of regulation CITES works by subjecting international trade of selected species to certain controls. The species covered by CITES are threatened species which are listed in three appendices according to the degree of protection they need in the exporting countries.

Agreement International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’s Ballast water and Sediments 
Adopted: 2004
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The entire convention deals with the effort to prevent harmful aquatic organisms to be transfered through ballastwater and sediments
Content and coverage of regulation Parties must prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. The parties may take more stringent measures with respect to the prevention, reduction or elimination of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments, consistent with international law.

Agreement United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 
Adopted: 1982; In force: 1994
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 196 (1) of the Convention states that: "States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto."
Content and coverage of regulation States oblige to protect and preserve the marine environment from a "significant and harmful change" from the pollution by the intentional or uintential introduction of aliens species.

Agreement Convention on the Law of Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses  Adopted: 1997
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 22 affirms that: "Watercourse States shall take all measures necessary to prevent the introduction of species, alien or new, into an international watercourse which may have effects detrimental to the ecosystem of the watercourse resulting in significant harm to other watercourse States".
Content and coverage of regulation The Convention has not entered into force, since few signatures and ratifications have taken place. The Convention is a framework convention laying down the obligations and duties of the States sharing a basin as well as guiding States in negotiating agreements on specific watercourses.

Agreement The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar Convention)  
Adopted: 1971; In force: 1975
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Resolution VII/14 on Invasive species and wetlands
Content and coverage of regulation

The Convention's mission is the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world. The Ramsar Convention has identified invasive species as one of the threats to wetlands.


Agreement

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
Adopted: 1951; In force: 1952; Amended: 1987
Special section(s) relevant to alien species An IPPC workshop on invasive alien species has been held in 2003.

See also FAO’s forestry homepage, which has a section on alien invasive forestry trees.

Content and coverage of regulation The International Plant Protection Convention is an international treaty relating to plant health. While the Convention applies mainly to quarantine pests involved with international trade it extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products. It also includes both direct and indirect damage by pests, thus including weeds. The provisions extend to cover conveyances, containers, storage places, soil and other objects or material capable of harbouring plant pests.

Under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the European and Meditarenean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) is the regional plant protection organization (RPPO) for Europe. EPPO maintains an alert list of invasive species.


Agreement Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS agreement)
Adopted: 1994; In force: 1995
Special section(s) relevant to alien species No specific alien species content, but pests are often alien species as well.
Content and coverage of regulation The SPS agreement supplements the WTO agreement and provides an international legal basis for all sanitary and phytosanitary measures which may, directly or indirectly, affect international trade. The focus is with pests, diseases, sanitary and phytosanitary issues.

 

EU Directives and Regulations 

Agreement Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds (Birds Directive) (as ammended)
In force: 1979
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 11 of the directive affirms that member states shall se that any introduction of species of birds which do not occur naturally in the wild state in the european territory of the member states does not prejudice the local flora and fauna.
Content and coverage of regulation The Directive 79/409/EEC provides a framework for the conservation and management of wild birds in Europe. It sets a broad objective regarding non-native birds, but leaves to the discretion of each Member State how compliance with these objectives is achieved.

Agreement Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (Habitat Directive) 
Adopted: 1992; In force: 1992
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 22, b of the Habitat Directive establishes that Member States shall ensure that the deliberate introduction into the wild of any species which is not native to their territory is regulated so as not to prejudice natural habitats within their natural range or the wild native fauna and flora and, if they consider it necessary, prohibit such introduction.
Content and coverage of regulation The Habitat Directive aims to promote the maintenance of biodiversity in the Member States by defining a common framework for the conservation of wild flora and fauna and habitats of Community interest. The Directive establishes a European ecological network known as "Natura 2000". The Habitat Directive is a part implementation of the CBD Convention at European level.

Agreement Council Regulation No 88/98/EEC of 18 December 1997 laying down certain technical measures for the conservation of fishery resources in the waters of the Baltic Sea, the Belts and the Sound 
Adopted: 1997; In force: 1998
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 10, 4 states that: It shall be prohibited to release exotic species into the Baltic Sea, the Belts and the Sound or to fish for exotic species and sturgeon, unless authorised by the rules adopted in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 13 and with the obligations arising from the Gdansk Convention. Exotic species are defined as those which do not occur naturally in the Baltic Sea, the Belts and the Sound.
Content and coverage of regulation This regulation is very specific, in geographical scope as well as in organisms. In can only be used to prevent the intentional introduction of aliens species.

Agreement Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein 
Adopted 1996; In force: 1997 ; Amended: 2003
Special section(s) relevant to alien species In Article IV, 6d of Council regulation 338/97 it is stated that the Commission may establish restrictions relating to certain countries of origin, on the introduction into the Community of live specimens of species for which it has been established that their introduction into the natural environment of the Community presents an ecological threat to wild species of fauna and flora indigenous to the Community.

The appendices included in regulation 1497/2003 mention several invasive species: Oxyura jamaicensis, Trachemys scripta, Rana catesbeiana. The appendices are regularly updated.

Content and coverage of regulation The CITES convention has been implemented in Europe by Commission Regulation (EC) No 338/97. This Regulation was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1497/2003 of 18 August 2003 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein.

In the annexes to the new directive a few invasive alien species that have become threats in importing EU-countries have been included. The alien species regulated through CITES are only the intentional introductions since it is based on an approval system.


Agreement

Alien species in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Special section(s) relevant to alien species

Eleven generic qualitative descriptors are to be considered when determining the environmental status of waters. Alien species are specifically addressed in Annex I. Descriptor 2. Non-indigenous species introduced by human activities are at levels that do not adversely alter the environment. Criteria and indicators for determining if this qualitative descriptor is achieved are currently being developed. The proposed criteria that are under consideration are:

  • Prevention of new NIS introductions. Indicators for this are accounts of vectors associated with new introductions and changes in pathways and vectors

  • Prevention of establishment and spread of NIS. Indicators are Inventories of newly arrived NIS and areas of their origin, trends in introduction of invasive alien species and accounts of newly colonised localities

  • Change in Species composition. The indicator is the ratio between non-indigenous species and native species

  • Prevention of spread of invasive alien species. Indicators are a target list on potentially harmful species and the abundance and distribution range of IAS.

  • The absence of minimal level of IAS impact which disturb environmental quality. The indicator is the Biopollution index in which abundance, distribution range and impacts on native communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning are assessed.

Annex III The initial assessment for alien species should be done by 2012 and include:

  • An analysis of the current environmental status of waters which include an inventory of the temporal occurrence, abundance and spatial distribution of non-indigenous, exotic species or where, relevant, genetically distinct form of native species, which are present in the region/sub-region

  • An analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts for introduction of non-indigenous species and translocations

  

Content and coverage of regulation

The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive establishes a framework for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, the prevention of its deterioration and the restoration of that environment where it has been adversely affected. Marine strategies are be developed and implemented with the aim of achieving or maintaining good environmental status in the marine environment by the year 2021 at the latest.


Agreement

Council Regulation (EC) no 708/2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture

Special section(s) relevant to alien species

The entire regulation

Content and coverage of regulation

This regulation aims to optimise benefits associated with introductions and translocations of alien and locally absent species used in aquaculture while at the same time avoiding alterations in ecosystems and preventing negative biological interaction including genetic change with indigenous populations and restricting the spread of non-target species and detrimental impacts on natural habitats. The main focus is on risk assessments of alien species before allowing introduction or translocation. Fifteen alien species are exempted from the regulations.

 

Regional Conventions

Agreement Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention)
Adopted: 1979; In force: 1982
Special section(s) relevant to alien species In Article 11, paragraph 2.b of the Convention, each Contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species.

The Bern Convention has produced The European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species (pdf-file; 181 kb) as well as a report on Identification of non-native freshwater fishes (word-file) established in Europe and assessment of their potential threats to the biological diversity.

Recommendation No. 57 (1997) on the Introduction of Organisms belonging to Non-Native Species into the Environment

Recommendation No. 91 (2002) on Invasive Alien Species that threaten biological diversity in Islands and geographically and evolutionary isolated ecosystems

Recommendation No. 77 (1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrates

Recommendation No. 99 (2003) on the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species, which recommends that Contracting Parties: draw up and implement national strategies on invasive alien species taking into account the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. And co-operate, as appropriate, with other Contracting Parties and Observer States in prevention, mitigation and eradication or containment of aliens species.

Content and coverage of regulation The Bern Convention is a binding international legal instrument in the field of nature conservation and itt aim to conserve wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats and to promote European co-operation in that field. Several recommendations under the convention have dealt with alien species.

The Recommendation No. 77 (1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrates is very concrete and recommends the eradication of: Mustela vison (American mink), Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat), Myocastor coypus (Coypu), Sciurus carolinensis (Grey squirrel), Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy duck), Cervus nippon (Sika deer), Procyon lotor (Raccoon), Nyctereutes procyonoides (Raccoon dog), Castor canadensis (Canadian beaver), Trachemys scripta (Red eared terrapin), Rana catesbeiana (Bull frog).


Agreement The Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA)
Adopted: 1995; In force: 1999
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article III,2g: "Parties shall prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native waterbird species into the environment and take all appropriate measures to prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora and fauna; when non-native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species;"

Action Plan, Article 2,5 on Introductions states:

"2.5.1 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the introduction of non-native species of animals and plants which may be detrimental to the populations listed in Table 1.

2.5.2 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking of appropriate precautions to avoid the accidental escape of captive birds belonging to non-native species.

2.5.3 Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-native species or hybrids thereof have already been introduced into their territory, those species or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard to the populations listed in Table 1."

Content and coverage of regulation The AEWA-Agreement covers 235 bird species that depend on wetlands for at least part of their annual cycle. Geographically the area covers 117 countries from Europe, parts of Asia and Canada, the Middle East and Africa. Throughout the migration systems of the waterbirds the states are to ensure a coordinated approach as well as a wide range of conservation actions (defined in the Action Plan). The Action Plan addresses species and habitat conservation, management of human activities, research and monitoring, education and information, and implementation. Another activity of the AEWA-Agreement is a regular review of the status of each migratory water- bird population within the Agreement area.

The introduced Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is the best know case of 
an aliens species dealt with under the AEWA-Agreement.


Agreement Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic (HELCOM)  Adopted: 1992; In force: 2000
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Alien species have been dealt with through project such as the creation of the database on alien species in and around the Baltic Sea.
Content and coverage of regulation The Convention uses a definition of pollution, that enables the HELCOM to also deal with alien species: ""Pollution" means introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the sea, including estuaries, which are liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine ecosystems, to cause hindrance to legitimate uses of the sea including fishing, to impair the quality for use of sea water, and to lead to a reduction of amenities;" Main focus has been on conventional pollution.

Agreement Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention)
Adopted: 1992; In force: 1998
Special section(s) relevant to alien species In the 2003 Strategy of the OSPAR Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic alien species is listed as one of the candidates of human activities for further analysis as regards actual or potential adverse effect on species and habitats or on ecological processes.
Content and coverage of regulation The Convention uses a definition of pollution, that enables the OSPAR to also deal with alien species: "Pollution" means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the maritime area which results, or is likely to result, in hazards to human health, harm to living resources and marine ecosystems, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea."

Agreement Convention for the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention)
Adopted: ;1991 In force: 1991
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 17, 1 in the protocol on nature conservation and landscape protection states that contracting parties should ensure the no introduction of non-native plants or animals takes place.
Content and coverage of regulation The Alpine Convention is a framework convention aiming at the preservation of the natural ecosystem of the Alps and the promotion of sustainable development in this area, protecting, at the same time, both the economic and cultural interests of the resident population of the Alpine region.

Agreement Convention Concerning Fishing in the Waters of the Danube 
Adopted: 1958; In force: 1958 (for five year periods for each state)
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 10 states:"The acclimatization and breeding of new species of fish and other animals and of acquatic plants in the waters of the Danube to which the Convention applies may not be carried out save with the consent of the Mixed Commission."
Content and coverage of regulation

The Convention is an agreement to regulate fishing in the waters of the 
Danube throughout its course within the territory of the Contracting Parties 
to the point of entry into the Black Sea, including the Danube Delta.



Guidelines and Codes of conduct

Guideline/Code IUCN Guidelines for the prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species, 2000
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The guidelines relate directly to the article 8h of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD).
Content and coverage of guideline/code The guidelines are intended to assist governments and management agencies in their implementation of article 8h of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The overall aim is to reduce the negative effects of alien invasive species. The guidelines were prepared by the SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Guideline/Code IMO Guidelines for the control and management of ships' ballast water to minimize the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens, 1997
Special section(s) relevant to alien species

The guidelines deal with ballast water and ballast sediments. The Guidelines have been instrumental in defining the contents of the 
new International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’s Ballast water and Sediments.

Content and coverage of guideline/code The objectives of these Guidelines, developed under technical and scientific guidance, are to assist Governments and appropriate authorities, ship masters, operators and owners, and port authorities, as well as other interested parties, in minimizing the risk of introducing harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens from ships' ballast water and associated sedi- ments while protecting ships' safety.

Guideline/Code IUCN/SSC Guidelines for Re-Introductions, 1995
Special section(s) relevant to alien species

The guidelines are intended to act as a guide for procedures useful to re-introduction programmes. They deal with the intentional introduction of captive-bred individuals and the measures taken to prevent unintentional introduction of alien pathogens. 

Content and coverage of guideline/code

These guidelines are based on the IUCN Position Statement on 
the Translocation of Living Organisms in 1987, prepared by the 
SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group.


Guideline/ strategy The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, 1995
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The Strategy is a proactive approach to stop and reverse the degradation of biological and landscape diversity values in Europe. The Strategy reinforces the implementation of existing measures and identifies additional actions that need to be taken over the next two decades. The strategy utilizes the "Principle of Avoidance" on IAS: Introduction into the natural environment of exotic species should require environmental impact assessment if likely to have significant adverse effects on biological and landscape diversity.

The subject of alien invasive species was specifically adressed at the econd Intergovernmental Conference in Budapest, 2002. Also at the third intergovernmental Conference in Madrid, 2003 IAS were discussed and an action plan proposed. 

In Kiev, 2003 Ministers and senior officials from 55 countries endorsed the goal of halting the degradation of Europe's biological and landscape diversity by the year 2010. One of the Europe-wide targets for stabilizing biodiversity by 2010 was implementing an agreed strategy on alien invasive species in at least half of the region's countries by 2008.

Content and coverage of guideline/code The Strategy provides a framework to promote a consistent approach and common objectives for national and regional action to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Guideline/Code FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, 1995
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Article 9,2,3: "States should consult with their neighboring States, as appropriate, before introducing non-indigenous species into transboundary aquatic ecosystems."

Article 9,3,1: "States should conserve genetic diversity and maintain integrity of aquatic communities and ecosystems by appropriate management. In particular, efforts should be undertaken to minimize the harmful effects of introducing non-native species or genetically altered stocks used for aquaculture including culture-based fisheries into waters, especially where there is a significant potential for the spread of such non-native species or genetically altered stocks into waters under the jurisdiction of other States as well as waters under the jurisdiction of the State of origin. States should, whenever possible, promote steps to minimize adverse genetic, disease and other effects of escaped farmed fish on wild stocks." 

Content and coverage of guideline/ strategy This Code sets out "principles and international standards of behaviour for responsible practices with a view to ensuring the effective conservation, management and development of living aquatic resources, with due respect for the ecosystem and biodiversity."

The code thus covers unintentional and intentional introductions related to fisheries, including aquaculture. The Code is voluntary.
More on fisheries may be found oneFish by SIFAR.


Guideline/Code ICES code of practice on the Introduction and transfer of Marine Organisms, 2003
Special section(s) relevant to alien species The ICES Code of Practice recommends procedures and practices to reduce the risks of the intentional introduction and transfer of marine (including brackish water) organisms. See also report from the working group on introduction and transfer of marine organisms (2003).
Content and coverage of guideline/code

The International Council for the exploration of The Sea (ICES) is an organisation that coordinates and promotes marine research in the North Atlantic. This includes adjacent seas such as the Baltic Sea and North Sea.


Guideline/Code ICAO resolution on preventing the introduction of invasive
alien species
, 1998

Special 
section(s) 
relevant to 
alien species

The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) assembly in resolution No. A38-18: Preventing the introduction of invasive alien species

"Urges all Contracting States to support one another's efforts to reduce the risk of introducing, through civil air transportation, potentially invasive alien species to areas outside their natural range;

Requests the ICAO Council to continue to work with the appropriate concerned organizations to identify approaches that ICAO might take in assisting to reduce the risk of introducing potentially invasive alien species to areas outside their natural range;

Content and coverage of guideline/code  

Guideline/Code Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992)
Special section(s) relevant to alien species Chapter 11,13g. Combatting Deforestation by: "Increasing the protection of forests from pollutants, fire, pests and diseases and other human-made interferences such as forest poaching, mining and unmitigated shifting cultivation, the uncontrolled introduction of exotic plant and animal species, as well as developing and accelerating research for a better understanding of problems relating to the management and regeneration of all types of forests; strengthening and/or establishing appropriate measures to assess and/or check inter-border movement of plants and related materials; "  

Chapter 15 Biodiversity and conservation acknowledges that: "Despite mounting efforts over the past 20 years, the loss of the world's biological diversity, mainly from habitat destruction, over-harvesting, pollution and the inappropriate introduction of foreign plants and animals, has continued." 


In Chapter 17, 30; 17,79 and 17,83 ballastwater and maricultural/aquacultural issues are mentioned. States are encouraged to cooperate and to develop legal and regulatory frameworks and safguard against introduction of alien species.

In Chapter 18,4,e,iv. States are encouraged to: "Control of noxious aquatic species that may destroy some other water species;"

Content and coverage of guideline/code

The conservation of biological diversity is the subject of Chapter 15 of Agenda 21, but biodiversity issues are dealt with in many other chapters as well. Several chapters refer to aliens species as one of the problems for biodiversity conservation.